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[Update] ✅ Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption | assumption cathedral – Sambeauty

assumption cathedral: นี่คือโพสต์ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับหัวข้อนี้

Some parts of this article have been translated using Google’s translation engine. We understand the quality of this translation is not excellent and we are working to replace these with high quality human translations.

Introduction

The current Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption in San Francisco is the third church that serves as the archdiocese of the city. The first (1854) is still standing and is known as Old Saint Mary’s Cathedral, the second (1891) was destroyed by fire in 1962.

Immediately after that disastrous fire, Archbishop Joseph McGucken gathered his advisors to begin the process of planning and building a new cathedral. For such a project, the archbishop contacted three well-known local architects, Angus McSweeney, Paul A. Ryan and John Michael Lee, who began presenting preliminary sketches for the new cathedral that ranged from the traditional Romanesque mission to the Californian style. The plans soon took a dramatic turn as a result of a heated controversy resulting from an article written by architecture critic Allen Temko, who advocated a move beyond traditional architectural concepts to create a bold new cathedral, showing San Francisco as an important international urban center. To build a cathedral that would reflect the soul of the Californian city, Archbishop McGucken added two internationally renowned professionals to his team, the Italian Pietro Belluschi, dean of the School of Architecture of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who was in charge of the designs and Pier-Luigi Nervi, an engineering genius from Rome, who took care of structural concerns.

In August 1965, the ground began to be prepared and the apostolic delegate Luigi Raimondi blessed the cornerstone on December 13, 1967. The building was completed in 1970. The new cathedral was formally blessed on May 5, 1971.

Location

The cathedral is located at 1111 Gough St, San Francisco, United States, on the top of the city hill, in the neighborhood known as Cathedral Hill.

Concept

In addition to reaffirming the status of San Francisco as an international urban center, the new project should reflect the greatness of the city by incorporating the new liturgical directives promulgated by the Second Vatican Council held in Rome.

Liturgical directives

A new liturgy emerged from the council that lasted three years: “the church must focus, the council must move towards unity and integrity.” The effects of this statement were both architectural and liturgical. The council recommended that the new churches focus on unique and unobstructed spaces, where the sanctuary, the nave, the baptistery and the narthex can join. The effect of these design standards was expected, would unite the congregation and the priest. Although it precedes the board of directors, Belluschi’s design was adjusted to liturgical changes. The independent altar of St. Mary is slightly elevated, surrounded on three sides by congregational seats. The seats open outward so that no seat is more than 30 meters from the altar, and all are attached under the canopy of the bellicose hyperbolic paraboloids of Belluschi and Nervi.

Architectural design

The contours of the new cathedral were clarified through a series of press conferences held in 1964. The surprisingly modern design that was presented was received with great recognition. Archbishop McGucken’s team of architects had clearly designed a cathedral equal to the greatness of San Francisco, and which, according to Nervi, was “The first cathedral truly of our time and in harmony with the liturgical reforms of the Council.”

The striking design of the cathedral is derived from the geometric principle of the hyperbolic paraboloid, in which the structure curves upwards in graceful lines from the four corners that join at a cross.

Belluschi and Nervi produced a series of design models of which Nervi made several test models considered “daunting” by Belluschi. At the Istituto Sperimentale Modelli e Strutture in Bergamo, Italy, Nervi tested these models for their performance and appearance: some models tried to solve how the paraboloids would meet the requirements of the terrain, while others tested the effects of gravity loads and seismic activity.Nervi built a 1: 100 scale model for wind tunnel tests, also resin models at 1: 40 and 1: 37 scale for seismic tests and a large 1: 15 scale model in reinforced concrete for gravity loading tests These experimental tests allowed the engineer to develop a level of design freedom by developing new limits and shapes Through these tests, Nervi determined that, both to accommodate settlement requirements and for stiffness In the building, the paraboloid structure would have to be reduced and placed on a larger square base. Nervi sent the resulting drawings to an American engineering company, where the design was tested in the digital space with the STRESS software developed by MIT.

It is not clear to whom the authorship of the building should be attributed. It seems that Belluschi developed the main design of the building, although some reports attribute Nervi most of it.

Spaces

The building stands on a 75x75m square floor that rests on an elevated base that contains a meeting room, a rectory and a parking lot. Inside the temple the plant is distributed in a cruciform church (Greek cross) of equal arms from the center with an address dominated by the location of the main accesses and the main altar. The remaining four corners are dedicated to secondary altars. The enclosure can accommodate 1200 attendees.

The access plaza has a floor whose design consists of basic shapes. Concrete pieces with diamond drawings in the center made of brick that in turn form brick crosses surrounded by a concrete circle.

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Altar

One of the modifications resulting from the Second Vatican Council was that the altar should be turned so that the priest confronts the faithful. The altar of Sta María is austere and simple, a stone that stands on a platform surrounded by seats on three sides.

Organ

A large organ built by an old Italian firm from the city of Padua, Italy, Ruffati & Sons, who moved to the place to install it, is placed on an independent and sculpted pedestal.

Structure

Eight hyperbolic paraboloids  concrete  coated in travertine hang from a 58m high steel structure. Hyperbolic paraboloids are doubly ruled surfaces shaped like a saddle.

In its upper part, the steel structure takes the form of the Greek cross. The thin paraboloids, with an average of 14cm thick, sweep down to finish. The building sits on a pedestal of bricks, limestone and reinforced concrete. The weight of this structure descends on huge hollow vaulted arches that contain steel armor. These arches sprout from four equally massive springs, tied by a prestressed cable to the ground, which narrow and then reinforce outwards.

The total height of the building is 57.91m, but when the size of the cross is added, the height is 74.68. The cross is 16.76m high.

Pillars

In the corners where the secondary altars are located, the four reinforced concrete pillars are placed on which the roof rests, both the lower and the upper part. In the corners the windows with views to the city of San Francisco are also located.

Each pillars with an irregular hexagonal base aligns with the diagonals of the square with an inclination that favors the trajectory of the forces. The capital is also hexagonal with an inclined plane towards the center of the building. In its narrowest part, each pillar has a circumference of 7.32m and 27.43m is embedded downwards in the bed of the rock.

Roof

The low-pitched roof is composed of hyperbolic paraboloid segments in a way reminiscent of the Cathedral of St. Mary of Tokyo, by Kenzo Tange, which was built in the early 1960s, such that the cross section Lower horizontal roof is a square and the upper cross section, which rises 58m from the ground, is a cross. It was resolved at two heights, a practically flat perimeter and another central concentric with the first.

Each of the faces that form this roof is born in one of the edges of the capital of the pillars on which they rest. At the same time, the inclination is so pronounced that it seems in itself a capital on which the central vault is supported, which is what forms the cross. The roof is crowned by a 17m high cross.

The upper part of the roof is formed by two paraboloids defined by two equal and symmetrical warped quadrilaterals in relation to the low deck plane. These intersecting quadrilaterals form the cross that crowns the building, turning each half of the square into one of the arms of the cross, which are joined with bands of colorful stained glass that stand out with sunlight. The hyperbolic prestressed concrete arches of the great Greek cross-shaped dome are a masterpiece of steel and concrete. Inside they are formed by 1680 prefabricated triangular pieces with 128 different sizes that transfer the entire weight of the structure to the ground.

Materials

Reinforced concrete and steel were used in its construction.  The concrete was poured into the formwork mounted for the construction of the pillars, formwork whose form was made following the straight lines of the ruled of the warped quadrilaterals. The formwork ribs were placed on the outside of the formwork so that once the surfaces were removed they would be smooth and without marks.

Externally the arms of the cross are covered with rectangular travertine marble plates whose joints follow the direction of the straight lines of the paraboloid that forms the cross.

Inside the surface of each warped blade is defined by the texture of the various triangular shapes that form it and whose ribs strengthen the thin surface while remembering the Gothic style. The thin and hyperbolic paraboloids are composed of four layers, two layers of precast concrete molds, a pneumatically sprayed gunite layer and an outer layer of white travertine cladding tiles. The red brick floor of the cathedral recalls the ancient architecture of the Mission and the rich heritage of the local church.

Stained glass windows

Each of the four sides of the dome of the church has stained glass windows of György Kepes that continue until the culmination of the Greek cross. Sunlight shining through the stained glass windows and the perimeters of the structure help to illuminate the interior areas of the church and less use of electricity.

Belluschi brought Kepes, who was then a professor of visual design at MIT, to the project. The designer, who was interested in the psychological effects of light, had organized the exhibition “Light as a Creative Medium” at Harvard in 1965. Although Archbishop McGucken asked Kepes to include the symbolism in his design, Kepes insisted that the windows would remain non-figurative and that their effect, the emission of light fields, would have priority over their content, although it allowed an element of symbolism: the west window is red to represent fire, the gold of the south to represent air , the blue of the north to represent the water and the green of the east to represent the earth. Above, the Greek cross is represented in amber.

Hanging from the amber cross is the 36.58m high baldacchino by Richard Lippold, which suspends 14 levels of triangular aluminum rods with a fine gold wire and in whose center a gold crucifix also hangs.

Video

Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption. San Francisco.

[Update] ASSUMPTION CATHEDRAL IN YAROSLAVL: DESCRIPTION | assumption cathedral – Sambeauty

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Address: Russia, Yaroslavl region, Yaroslavl, Kotoroslnaya embankment, 2/1
Start of construction: 2004 year
Completion of construction: 2010 year
Recreated according to the project: A. M. Denisova
Height: 50 meters
Shrines: relics of the faithful princes Vasily and Constantine, the Yaroslavl icon of the Mother of God
Coordinates: 57 ° 37’21.1 “N 39 ° 54’07.8” E
Cultural heritage site of the Russian Federation

Content:

The Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, recreated on the site of an ancient temple, is a real decoration of an old Russian city. Today it has the status of a cathedral. The huge five-domed temple is visited not only by pilgrims, but also by many tourists. And although he does not copy the church blown up in 1937, the newly rebuilt church is a real monument of the traditions of Russian stone architecture, which began in the pre-Mongol period of the history of Russia.

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History of the construction of the Assumption Cathedral

The construction of the very first stone building for the Orthodox Church in Yaroslavl began thanks to Konstantin, who was the eldest son of the famous Rostov prince Vsevolod the Big Nest. According to the traditions existing at that time, it was decided to dedicate the main cathedral to the Assumption of the Mother of God. Its construction began in 1215 and took four years. The temple rose in the middle of the wooden Kremlin – the prince’s court on the picturesque Spit between Korotosl and the Volga and was consecrated by Bishop Kirill of Rostov.

View of the cathedral from the Volga embankment

We do not know for certain what that first church was, since the temple has not survived. The original appearance of this cathedral can only be understood on the basis of archaeological finds. According to the results of the excavations, it is known that the temple was built of red baked bricks – plinths. A peculiarity was that during the construction of the walls, a rather thick layer of mortar was used, often equal in thickness to the bricks themselves. Outside, the cathedral was decorated with white stone reliefs with carved masks and ornaments. The floor was covered with tiles made of majolica. And the doors leading to the cathedral were decorated with gilded copper. Its founder, Prince Constantine, was buried in this church.

The history of the temple in the XIII-XX centuries

When in 1237 the troops of Batu, who attacked Russia, burst into the streets of ancient Yaroslavl, almost the entire city was ruined. The cathedral of the Most Holy Theotokos did not escape a bitter fate. The invaders plundered this temple and deprived it of almost all the liturgical utensils, as well as the interior decoration.

View of the western facade of the cathedral

The next two and a half centuries became a time of peace and prosperity in the history of the Assumption Cathedral. But at the very beginning of the 16th century, there was a big fire, the vaults of the temple could not stand it and collapsed. When they were clearing the ashes, they found the relics of the Yaroslavl princes Konstantin and Vasily. The restoration of the burnt building took a long time – until 1516. Then it was possible to build only a low temple on the basement. From the west, it had a side-altar “on the beds”, similar to the Moscow Annunciation Cathedral.

The next 17th century brought the Time of Troubles to Russia. And many Russian lands suffered greatly from the Polish-Lithuanian invasion. Yaroslavl did not escape the ruinous invasion. It is noteworthy that it was in this cathedral that the Rostov Metropolitan Kirill (Zavidov) gave his blessing to Prince Dmitry Mikhailovich Pozharsky for the liberation campaign of the Russian militia against Moscow.

View of the cathedral from the south

Then the heyday came for Yaroslavl. The city grew and developed. However, by that time the dilapidated cathedral became small for the townspeople. And it was decided to build a new large temple in its place. The tsar allowed the old cathedral to be dismantled, and its basement temporarily used as a “green and lead treasury” – a powder warehouse. But the room turned out to be too damp for storing gunpowder. Therefore, the local voivode ordered to finish building the walls that were not completely dismantled and to make a state chamber in the former cathedral.

A new temple was erected next to the old one from 1643 to 1646. It turned out to be one-story and had five chapters. However, in the 17th century, the Assumption Cathedral burned twice more during large fires, and each time it was restored anew. The rebuilt cathedrals changed in size and proportion, but they were always crowned with a massive five domes.

In parallel with the building of the temple, a high (55 m) hipped eight-sided bell tower was built, which existed until 1836, when it was replaced with a new one – a multi-tiered one. The author of the project was the famous architect and rector of the Imperial Academy of Arts Abraham Ivanovich Melnikov.

In the new bell tower, one could guess various architectural techniques, united by the style of the so-called romantic eclecticism. Melnikov’s unusual decision was to install the octagon on the second tier on the quadruple of the first, and place the quad again on the third tier. Indeed, in the architecture of the 19th century, it was no longer accepted to use octals. An arch for the passage was made under the new bell tower.

In addition, in the 30s of the XIX century, a warm temple was added to the cathedral from the south, consecrated in honor of the Yaroslavl noble princes Constantine and Vasily. The need for such alterations arose due to the tightness. The Dormition Cathedral was considered the main one in the diocese by its status. And the small warm Vladimirsky side-chapel that existed before could not accommodate everyone who came to church services. Construction work on the reconstruction of the cathedral at that time was headed by Archbishop Abraham (Shumilin).

The eternal flame against the background of the Assumption Cathedral. View of the cathedral from Chelyuskintsev square

In 1844, church domes were the first in the city to be gilded, and they sparkled in the sun. According to documents that have survived from the 19th century, it is known that inside the cathedral there was a beautiful five-tiered iconostasis, on which valuable ancient icons were installed.

In 1918, a White Guard uprising took place in Yaroslavl against the rule of the Bolsheviks. The walls of the Assumption Church were damaged during the shelling, but the parish community found funds and the building was repaired. Several years later, a campaign was launched to seize valuable church property. Sad times have come for the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Most Holy Theotokos. The most valuable items from the temple sacristy had to be transferred to the state. During these years, the cathedral housed the city labor exchange.

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Then came the times of a total struggle between the state and religion. In 1929, the bell tower was dismantled, and a little later, the church community was dissolved, at least somehow maintaining the cathedral in good condition.

Sculpture of the Holy Trinity against the background of the Assumption Cathedral

In the deserted church, premises were equipped for a sewing workshop, as well as for a warehouse where art values ​​were kept for sale abroad. Then a granary was located in the cathedral for seven years.

On August 26, 1937, the shrine of the Yaroslavl lands was completely lost. The ancient temple, which had stood for several hundred years, was blown up. Then the stone rubble was cleared and a park of culture and recreation was set up on the territory. And the lost cathedral remained only in photographs taken in 1911 by the famous Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorsky.

Later, the famous Soviet archaeologist Nikolai Nikolayevich Voronin and other specialists repeatedly tried to find the remains of the foundation of the first pre-Mongol cathedral. But these attempts did not bring positive results.

View of the cathedral from the side of the arrow

Reconstruction of the Assumption Cathedral

The fundamental decision to build a new temple was made in 2004, after large-scale archaeological work. A year later, in a solemn atmosphere, the foundation stone was consecrated. Moscow builders erected the temple from 2004 to 2010, using an architectural project developed by Alexei Denisov.

The consecration of the revived cathedral was timed to coincide with the celebration of the 1000th anniversary of the city. It took place in the fall of 2010. At the same time, the relics of the Yaroslavl princes revered by the faithful were returned to the temple, as well as a copy from the Yaroslavl icon of the Mother of God. Three years later, exploration work began to restore the lost temple bell tower. It is planned to build it with a height of 70 m. In the meantime, the bells for the future belfry were placed next to the building of the cathedral.

Stone to the founders of the city against the background of the cathedral

The new temple accommodates simultaneously up to 4 thousand believers and reaches a height of 50 m. Its total area is about 2 thousand square meters. m. There is a sculpture dedicated to the Holy Trinity near the building. A mosaic icon of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary is placed above the entrance to the cathedral. The walls of the building are decorated with tiles. It is very spacious inside, and, despite the “novelty”, there are many old icon-painting images. This golden-domed temple looks especially good from the city embankment, from the Volga.

The current state of the Assumption Cathedral and the visiting regime

The cathedral is a functioning Orthodox church. Daily church services are held there at 8.00 and 17.00. Services start at 8.40 on Sundays and public holidays. The feast day is celebrated in the cathedral on 28 August. The relics of the faithful princes Basil and Constantine are considered to be temple relics revered by believers.

Cathedral domes

How to get to the Assumption Cathedral

The cathedral is located in Yaroslavl on Korotoslnaya embankment, 2/1.

By car. The federal highway M8 leads from Moscow to Yaroslavl. Within the city limits, it is called Moskovsky Prospekt. On it, you need to cross the Korotosl River across the bridge, and then turn right onto the Korotoslnaya embankment, which will lead to the cathedral.

By train. From Moscow to Yaroslavl, express train trains reach in 3 hours 16 minutes. The journey by regular train takes from 4 to 5.5 hours. From Moskovsky Train Station in Yaroslavl, the distance to the Assumption Cathedral is 3.5 km. They can be walked or taken by taxi.

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Assumption Cathedral in Yaroslavl on the map

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วีดีโองานแต่งงาน คุณ ออม ล่ำซำ กับ คุณ เอก จักรธิป กนกกุล
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ขอบคุณที่รับชมกระทู้ครับ assumption cathedral

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