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[NEW] Primitive Data Types (The Java™ Tutorials > Learning the Java Language > Language Basics) | long table pantip – Sambeauty

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Trail: Learning the Java Language

Lesson: Language Basics

Section: Variables

The Java Tutorials have been written for JDK 8. Examples and practices described in this page don’t take advantage of improvements introduced in later releases and might use technology no longer available. See Java Language Changes for a summary of updated language features in Java SE 9 and subsequent releases. See JDK Release Notes for information about new features, enhancements, and removed or deprecated options for all JDK releases.

Primitive Data Types

The Java programming language is statically-typed, which means that all variables must first be declared before they can be used. This involves stating the variable’s type and name, as you’ve already seen:

int gear = 1;

Doing so tells your program that a field named “gear” exists, holds numerical data, and has an initial value of “1”. A variable’s data type determines the values it may contain, plus the operations that may be performed on it. In addition to int, the Java programming language supports seven other . A primitive type is predefined by the language and is named by a reserved keyword. Primitive values do not share state with other primitive values. The eight primitive data types supported by the Java programming language are:

  • byte: The byte data type is an 8-bit signed two’s complement integer. It has a minimum value of -128 and a maximum value of 127 (inclusive). The byte data type can be useful for saving memory in large
    arrays, where the memory savings actually matters. They can also be used in place of int where their limits help to clarify your code; the fact that a variable’s range is limited can serve as a form of documentation.

  • short: The short data type is a 16-bit signed two’s complement integer. It has a minimum value of -32,768 and a maximum value of 32,767 (inclusive). As with byte, the same guidelines apply: you can use a short to save memory in large arrays, in situations where the memory savings actually matters.

  • int: By default, the int data type is a 32-bit signed two’s complement integer, which has a minimum value of -231 and a maximum value of 231-1. In Java SE 8 and later, you can use the int data type to represent an unsigned 32-bit integer, which has a minimum value of 0 and a maximum value of 232-1. Use the Integer class to use int data type as an unsigned integer. See the section The Number Classes for more information. Static methods like compareUnsigned, divideUnsigned etc have been added to the
    Integer class to support the arithmetic operations for unsigned integers.

  • long: The long data type is a 64-bit two’s complement integer. The signed long has a minimum value of -263 and a maximum value of 263-1. In Java SE 8 and later, you can use the long data type to represent an unsigned 64-bit long, which has a minimum value of 0 and a maximum value of 264-1. Use this data type when you need a range of values wider than those provided by int. The
    Long class also contains methods like compareUnsigned, divideUnsigned etc to support arithmetic operations for unsigned long.

  • float: The float data type is a single-precision 32-bit IEEE 754 floating point. Its range of values is beyond the scope of this discussion, but is specified in the
    Floating-Point Types, Formats, and Values section of the Java Language Specification. As with the recommendations for byte and short, use a float (instead of double) if you need to save memory in large arrays of floating point numbers. This data type should never be used for precise values, such as currency. For that, you will need to use the
    java.math.BigDecimal class instead.
    Numbers and Strings covers BigDecimal and other useful classes provided by the Java platform.

  • double: The double data type is a double-precision 64-bit IEEE 754 floating point. Its range of values is beyond the scope of this discussion, but is specified in the
    Floating-Point Types, Formats, and Values section of the Java Language Specification. For decimal values, this data type is generally the default choice. As mentioned above, this data type should never be used for precise values, such as currency.

  • boolean: The boolean data type has only two possible values: true and false. Use this data type for simple flags that track true/false conditions. This data type represents one bit of information, but its “size” isn’t something that’s precisely defined.

  • char: The char data type is a single 16-bit Unicode character. It has a minimum value of '\u0000' (or 0) and a maximum value of '\uffff' (or 65,535 inclusive).

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In addition to the eight primitive data types listed above, the Java programming language also provides special support for character strings via the
java.lang.String class. Enclosing your character string within double quotes will automatically create a new String object; for example, String s = "this is a string";. String objects are , which means that once created, their values cannot be changed. The String class is not technically a primitive data type, but considering the special support given to it by the language, you’ll probably tend to think of it as such. You’ll learn more about the String class in
Simple Data Objects

Default Values

It’s not always necessary to assign a value when a field is declared. Fields that are declared but not initialized will be set to a reasonable default by the compiler. Generally speaking, this default will be zero or null, depending on the data type. Relying on such default values, however, is generally considered bad programming style.

The following chart summarizes the default values for the above data types.

Data Type
Default Value (for fields)

byte

short

int

long
0L

float
0.0f

double
0.0d

char
‘\u0000’

String (or any object)  
null

boolean
false

Local variables are slightly different; the compiler never assigns a default value to an uninitialized local variable. If you cannot initialize your local variable where it is declared, make sure to assign it a value before you attempt to use it. Accessing an uninitialized local variable will result in a compile-time error.

Literals

You may have noticed that the new keyword isn’t used when initializing a variable of a primitive type. Primitive types are special data types built into the language; they are not objects created from a class. A literal is the source code representation of a fixed value; literals are represented directly in your code without requiring computation. As shown below, it’s possible to assign a literal to a variable of a primitive type:

boolean result = true;
char capitalC = 'C';
byte b = 100;
short s = 10000;
int i = 100000;

Integer Literals

An integer literal is of type long if it ends with the letter L or l; otherwise it is of type int. It is recommended that you use the upper case letter L because the lower case letter l is hard to distinguish from the digit 1.

Values of the integral types byte, short, int, and long can be created from int literals. Values of type long that exceed the range of int can be created from long literals. Integer literals can be expressed by these number systems:

  • Decimal: Base 10, whose digits consists of the numbers 0 through 9; this is the number system you use every day
  • Hexadecimal: Base 16, whose digits consist of the numbers 0 through 9 and the letters A through F
  • Binary: Base 2, whose digits consists of the numbers 0 and 1 (you can create binary literals in Java SE 7 and later)

For general-purpose programming, the decimal system is likely to be the only number system you’ll ever use. However, if you need to use another number system, the following example shows the correct syntax. The prefix 0x indicates hexadecimal and 0b indicates binary:

// The number 26, in decimal
int decVal = 26;
//  The number 26, in hexadecimal
int hexVal = 0x1a;
// The number 26, in binary
int binVal = 0b11010;

Floating-Point Literals

A floating-point literal is of type float if it ends with the letter F or f; otherwise its type is double and it can optionally end with the letter D or d.

The floating point types (float and double) can also be expressed using E or e (for scientific notation), F or f (32-bit float literal) and D or d (64-bit double literal; this is the default and by convention is omitted).

double d1 = 123.4;
// same value as d1, but in scientific notation
double d2 = 1.234e2;
float f1  = 123.4f;

Character and String Literals

Literals of types char and String may contain any Unicode (UTF-16) characters. If your editor and file system allow it, you can use such characters directly in your code. If not, you can use a “Unicode escape” such as '\u0108' (capital C with circumflex), or "S\u00ED Se\u00F1or" (Sí Señor in Spanish). Always use ‘single quotes’ for char literals and “double quotes” for String literals. Unicode escape sequences may be used elsewhere in a program (such as in field names, for example), not just in char or String literals.

The Java programming language also supports a few special escape sequences for char and String literals: \b (backspace), \t (tab), \n (line feed), \f (form feed), \r (carriage return), \" (double quote), \' (single quote), and \\ (backslash).

There’s also a special null literal that can be used as a value for any reference type. null may be assigned to any variable, except variables of primitive types. There’s little you can do with a null value beyond testing for its presence. Therefore, null is often used in programs as a marker to indicate that some object is unavailable.

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Finally, there’s also a special kind of literal called a class literal, formed by taking a type name and appending “.class"; for example, String.class. This refers to the object (of type Class) that represents the type itself.

Using Underscore Characters in Numeric Literals

In Java SE 7 and later, any number of underscore characters (_) can appear anywhere between digits in a numerical literal. This feature enables you, for example. to separate groups of digits in numeric literals, which can improve the readability of your code.

For instance, if your code contains numbers with many digits, you can use an underscore character to separate digits in groups of three, similar to how you would use a punctuation mark like a comma, or a space, as a separator.

The following example shows other ways you can use the underscore in numeric literals:

long creditCardNumber = 1234_5678_9012_3456L;
long socialSecurityNumber = 999_99_9999L;
float pi =  3.14_15F;
long hexBytes = 0xFF_EC_DE_5E;
long hexWords = 0xCAFE_BABE;
long maxLong = 0x7fff_ffff_ffff_ffffL;
byte nybbles = 0b0010_0101;
long bytes = 0b11010010_01101001_10010100_10010010;

You can place underscores only between digits; you cannot place underscores in the following places:

  • At the beginning or end of a number
  • Adjacent to a decimal point in a floating point literal
  • Prior to an F or L suffix
  • In positions where a string of digits is expected

The following examples demonstrate valid and invalid underscore placements (which are highlighted) in numeric literals:

// Invalid: cannot put underscores
// adjacent to a decimal point
float pi1 = 3_.1415F;
// Invalid: cannot put underscores 
// adjacent to a decimal point
float pi2 = 3._1415F;
// Invalid: cannot put underscores 
// prior to an L suffix
long socialSecurityNumber1 = 999_99_9999_L;

// OK (decimal literal)
int x1 = 5_2;
// Invalid: cannot put underscores
// At the end of a literal
int x2 = 52_;
// OK (decimal literal)
int x3 = 5_______2;

// Invalid: cannot put underscores
// in the 0x radix prefix
int x4 = 0_x52;
// Invalid: cannot put underscores
// at the beginning of a number
int x5 = 0x_52;
// OK (hexadecimal literal)
int x6 = 0x5_2; 
// Invalid: cannot put underscores
// at the end of a number
int x7 = 0x52_;

[NEW] Noriko no shokutaku (2005) | long table pantip – Sambeauty

Love it or hate it, ‘Noriko’s dinner table’ is oddly fascinating. Technically both a prequel and sequel to Sion Sono’s much more grisly ‘Suicide Club,’ there are definite connections, and ‘Noriko’ works to fill in some gaps in the narrative writing of the 2001 film. At the same time, this readily seems like a strong standalone feature, with greater weight and meaning beyond visceral shock and loose threads – this is much less a thriller than it is a psychological drama. I’m not entirely sure what to make of it, but it has a feel all its own, and is peculiarly grabbing.

Far be it from me to employ a tawdry metaphor, but the story in ‘Noriko’s dinner table’ makes me think of a sandwich. What initially impresses as the superficial plotline is reaffirmed more concretely in the end, and between these bookends is considerable substance that truly makes this film what it is. The tale begins as teenager Noriko, feeling uneasy and out of place with her life and family, runs away from home to meet an otherwise unknown acquaintance from an Internet bulletin board, and to seek her own way. It’s a simple beginning, but where the narrative goes from there is distinctly captivating. Scenes play out with the actors also narrating the course of events and providing characters’ inner thoughts, only further ingratiating the picture to us with its particular style.

With each fiber that comprises the narrative, there’s a measure of subtlety to the active plot, while themes of ‘Noriko’ are much more plainspoken. The movie explores the idea of the lies we live, and what that does to us; the lies we choose, that we find meaningful; disconnection from family, from society, or from our own persons; and in the midst of it all, finding ourselves – or, alternatively, losing ourselves. It’s filled with ideas of empathy, and what we can be for other people. More underhandedly, ‘Noriko’ also touches on notions of everyone and everything having a purpose – how discovering and fulfilling that purpose can bring true happiness, and be gainful in a very existential and philosophical sense. That all these concepts are tied into the darker, more foreboding aspects of the story makes us question ever more deeply what they mean for us.

This is also where it’s especially worth mentioning ‘Suicide Club,’ because ‘Noriko’ is intended in part to round out some details of its predecessor. In the themes of this feature, and to a smaller extent in elements of the narrative, it does provide us a more complete image of what Sono was doing with ‘Suicide Club.’ Even so, when more predominantly considering the latter, adding ‘Noriko’s’ contributions into the very mixed bag that the bloodier flick represents also serves to further confuse its plot. Its an unfortunate cycle – the facets of this movie that would bolster its antecedent, failing to fit neatly, then also consequently dampen the narrative here with their inclusion. In whatever ways one ties into the other, that ‘Noriko’s dinner table’ broadly stands so well on its own somewhat magnifies the weaknesses and lesser coherence of ‘Suicide Club,’ and the kickback with their link is not advantageous.

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There are definite deficiencies with this picture, also including camerawork that I don’t necessarily find impressive. Yet the broad narrative writing is solid, and fantastic. So it is with the characters, too, and while a little hit or miss, the assembled cast is overall pretty swell as they inhabit their roles. Kazue Fukiishi is a solid lead as chief protagonist Noriko, capably realizing the girl’s dissatisfaction, confusion, and shifting sense of identity. Yuriko Yoshitaka, portraying Noriko’s younger sister Yuka, demonstrates able skill in a character arc that somewhat mirrors the protagonist’s. I’m personally most taken with Tsugumi, who as Kumiko embodies a part requiring notable range, poise, and force of personality, and she deftly maneuvers the nuance. To emphasize these three is hardly to discredit anyone else involved though, and it’s also worth mentioning the contributions behind the scenes of hair, makeup, costume design, and set decoration. Everything in this movie looks pretty great to these eyes.

Having watched Sono’s ‘Suicide Club’ and found it enjoyable but wanting, and being vaguely aware of the association with ‘Noriko’s dinner table,’ I wasn’t sure what to expect. But I’m genuinely, pleasantly surprised. It’s a little bit uneven, and not altogether perfect, but much more so than not it’s admirably well-written. While the execution sometimes falters, most scenes are wonderfully orchestrated. The end result is a film that’s engaging, entrancing, and not just satisfying, but rewarding. The story and characters are rich and enticing, focal points of a movie I’m happy to say I confidently recommend. If marginally imprecise, ‘Noriko’s dinner table’ is a fun, warped, and pleasing feature, well worth seeking out.


a very modern and very large pair of dining tables – 14 seater dining tables


In this video I showcase a pair of beautiful Victorian Ash dining tables I made for the Palmerston Association.
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a very modern and very large pair of dining tables - 14 seater dining tables

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Long Desk | Minimalist Table | Office Table | Sabado Build


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Long Desk | Minimalist Table | Office Table | Sabado Build

DIY EASY LONG RUSTIC COMPUTER DESK TUTORIAL FOR $100 OR LESS


Hey everyone! I wanted to share a super, cheap, and (hopefully) helpful video showing you how my husband and I built our DIY long rustic computer desk. This long computer desk is the perfect hack for many computer desks/table that you can find online or instores for CHEAP. Let me know what you think of this DIY custom desk build in the comments below. Thumbs up if you like these DIY videos. :) Just a reminder, we are not professional woodworking experts. All for fun!
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นอกจากการดูบทความนี้แล้ว คุณยังสามารถดูข้อมูลที่เป็นประโยชน์อื่นๆ อีกมากมายที่เราให้ไว้ที่นี่: ดูวิธีอื่นๆWedding

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