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Android Debug Bridge (adb) is a versatile command-line tool that lets you communicate with a
device. The adb command facilitates a variety of device actions, such as installing and debugging
apps, and it provides access to a Unix shell that you can use to run a variety of commands on a
device. It is a client-server program that includes three components:

  • A client, which sends commands. The client runs on your development machine. You can
    invoke a client from a command-line terminal by issuing an adb command.
  • A daemon (adbd), which runs commands on a device. The daemon runs as a background
    process on each device.
  • A server, which manages communication between the client and the daemon. The server
    runs as a background process on your development machine.

adb is included in the Android SDK Platform-Tools package. You can download this
package with the SDK Manager, which installs
it at android_sdk/platform-tools/. Or if you want the standalone Android SDK
Platform-Tools package, you can download it here.

For information on connecting a device for use over ADB, including how to use the Connection
Assistant to troubleshoot common problems, see
Run apps on a hardware device.

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How adb works

When you start an adb client, the client first checks whether there is an adb server
process already running. If there isn’t, it starts the server process. When the server starts,
it binds to local TCP port 5037 and listens for commands sent from adb clients—all adb
clients use port 5037 to communicate with the adb server.

The server then sets up connections to all running devices.
It locates emulators by scanning odd-numbered ports in the range
5555 to 5585, the range used by the first 16 emulators. Where the server finds an adb
daemon (adbd), it sets up a connection to that port. Note that each emulator
uses a pair of sequential ports — an even-numbered port for
console connections and an odd-numbered port for adb connections. For example:

Emulator 1, console: 5554
Emulator 1, adb: 5555
Emulator 2, console: 5556
Emulator 2, adb: 5557
and so on…

As shown, the emulator connected to adb on port 5555 is the same as the emulator
whose console listens on port 5554.

Once the server has set up connections to all devices, you can use adb commands to
access those devices. Because the server manages connections to devices and handles
commands from multiple adb clients, you can control any device from any client (or
from a script).

Enable adb debugging on your device

To use adb with a device connected over USB, you must enable
USB debugging in the device system settings, under
Developer options
. To use adb with a device connected over Wi-Fi, see
Connect to a device over Wi-Fi.

On Android 4.2 and higher, the Developer options screen is
hidden by default. To make it visible, go to
Settings > About phone and tap Build number seven times. Return to the previous
screen to find Developer options at the bottom.

On some devices, the Developer options screen might be located or named differently.

You can now connect your device with USB. You can verify that your device is
connected by executing adb devices from the
android_sdk/platform-tools/ directory. If connected,
you’ll see the device name listed as a “device.”

Note: When you connect a device running Android 4.2.2 or higher,
the system shows a dialog asking whether to accept an RSA key that allows
debugging through this computer. This security mechanism protects user devices because it ensures
that USB debugging and other adb commands cannot be executed unless you’re able to unlock the
device and acknowledge the dialog.

For more information about connecting to a device over USB, read
Run Apps on a Hardware Device.

Connect to a device over Wi-Fi (Android 11+)

Android 11 and higher support deploying and debugging your app wirelessly
from your workstation using Android Debug Bridge (adb). For example, you can
deploy your debuggable app to multiple remote devices without physically
connecting your device via USB. This eliminates the need to deal with common USB
connection issues, such as driver installation.

To use wireless debugging, you need to pair your device to your workstation
using a pairing code. Your workstation and device must be connected to the same
wireless network. To connect to your device, follow these steps:

  1. On your workstation, update to the latest version of the
    SDK Platform-Tools.
  2. On the device, enable developer options.
  3. Enable the Wireless debugging option.
  4. On the dialog that asks Allow wireless debugging on this network?, click
    Allow.
  5. Select Pair device with pairing code. Take note of the pairing code, IP
    address, and port number displayed on the device (see image).
  6. On your workstation, open a terminal and navigate to
    android_sdk/platform-tools.
  7. Run adb pair
    ipaddr:port
    .
    Use the IP address and port number from step 5.
  8. When prompted, enter the pairing code that you received in step 5. A message
    indicates that your device has been successfully paired.

    Enter pairing code: 482924
    Successfully paired to 192.168.1.130:37099 [guid=adb-235XY]
    
  9. (For Linux or Microsoft Windows only) Run adb connect
    ipaddr:port
    . Use the IP address and port under
    Wireless debugging.

Connect to a device over Wi-Fi (Android 10 and lower)

adb usually communicates with the device over USB, but you can also use adb over Wi-Fi given the
following:

  • To connect to a device running Android 11 (and later), see the Wi-Fi section in
    Run Apps on a Hardware Device.
  • To connect to a device running earlier versions of Android, there are some initial steps
    you must do over USB. These steps are described below.
  • If you’re developing for Wear OS, see the guide to
    debugging a Wear OS app,
    which has special instructions for using adb with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.
  1. Connect your Android device and adb host computer
    to a common Wi-Fi network accessible to both.
    Beware that not all access points
    are suitable; you might need to use an access point
    whose firewall is configured properly to support adb.
  2. If you are connecting
    to a Wear OS device, turn off Bluetooth on the phone that’s paired with the device.
  3. Connect the device to the host computer with a USB cable.
  4. Set the target device to listen for a TCP/IP connection on port 5555.

    adb tcpip 5555
    
  5. Disconnect the USB cable from the target device.
  6. Find the IP address of the Android device. For example, on a Nexus device, you can find
    the IP address at Settings > About tablet
    (or About phone) > Status > IP address. Or,
    on a Wear OS device, you can find the IP address at Settings >
    Wi-Fi Settings > Advanced > IP address.
  7. Connect to the device by its IP address.

    adb connect device_ip_address:5555
    
  8. Confirm that your host computer is connected to the target device:

    $ adb devices
    List of devices attached
    device_ip_address:5555 device
    

You’re now good to go!

If the adb connection is ever lost:

  1. Make sure that your host is still connected to the same Wi-Fi network your Android device is.
  2. Reconnect by executing the adb connect step again.
  3. Or if that doesn’t work, reset your adb host:

    adb kill-server
    

    Then start over from the beginning.

Query for devices

Before issuing adb commands, it is helpful to know what device instances are connected
to the adb server. You can generate a list of attached devices using the
devices command.

  adb devices -l
  

In response, adb prints this status information for each device:

  • Serial number: A string created by adb to uniquely identify the device
    by its port number.
    Here’s an example serial number: emulator-5554
  • State: The connection state of the device can be one of the following:
    • offline: The device is not connected to adb or is not
      responding.
    • device: The device is now connected to the adb server. Note that
      this state does not imply that the Android system is fully booted and operational because
      the device connects to adb
      while the system is still booting. However, after boot-up, this is the normal operational
      state of an device.
    • no device: There is no device connected.
  • Description: If you include the -l option, the devices
    command tells you what the device is. This information is helpful when you have multiple devices
    connected so that you can tell them apart.

The following example shows the devices command and its output. There are three
devices running. The first two lines in the list are emulators, and the third line is a hardware
device that is attached to the computer.

$ adb devices
List of devices attached
emulator-5556 device product:sdk_google_phone_x86_64 model:Android_SDK_built_for_x86_64 device:generic_x86_64
emulator-5554 device product:sdk_google_phone_x86 model:Android_SDK_built_for_x86 device:generic_x86
0a388e93      device usb:1-1 product:razor model:Nexus_7 device:flo

Emulator not listed

The adb devices command has a corner-case command sequence that causes running
emulator(s) to not show up in the adb devices output even though
the emulator(s) are visible on your desktop. This happens when of the following
conditions are true:

  1. The adb server is not running, and
  2. You use the emulator command with the -port or
    -ports option with an odd-numbered port value between 5554 and 5584, and
  3. The odd-numbered port you chose is not busy so the port connection can be made at the
    specified port number, or if it is busy, the emulator switches to
    another port that meets the requirements in 2, and
  4. You start the adb server after you start the emulator.

One way to avoid this situation is to let the emulator choose its own ports, and don’t run more
than 16 emulators at once. Another way is to always start the adb server before you use the
emulator command, as explained in the following examples.

Example 1: In the following command sequence, the adb devices command starts
the adb server, but the list of devices does not appear.

Stop the adb server and enter the following commands in the order shown. For the avd name, provide
a valid avd name from your system. To get a list of avd names, type emulator -list-avds.
The emulator command is in the android_sdk/tools directory.

$ adb kill-server
$ emulator -avd Nexus_6_API_25 -port 5555
$ adb devices

List of devices attached
* daemon not running. starting it now on port 5037 *
* daemon started successfully *

Example 2: In the following command sequence, adb devices displays the
list of devices because the adb server was started first.

To see the emulator in the adb devices output, stop the adb server, and then start
it again after using the emulator command and before using the
adb devices command, as follows:

$ adb kill-server
$ emulator -avd Nexus_6_API_25 -port 5557
$ adb start-server
$ adb devices

List of devices attached
emulator-5557 device

For more information about emulator command-line options,
see Using Command Line
Parameters
.

Send commands to a specific device

If multiple devices are running, you must specify the target device
when you issue the adb command. To specify the target, use the devices command
to get the serial number of the target. Once you have the serial number, use the
-s option with the adb commands to specify the serial number.
If you’re going to issue a lot of adb commands, you can set the
$ANDROID_SERIAL environment variable to contain the serial number
instead. If you use both
-s and $ANDROID_SERIAL, -s overrides
$ANDROID_SERIAL.

In the following example, the list of attached devices is obtained, and then the serial
number of one of the devices is used to install the helloWorld.apk on that device.

$ adb devices
List of devices attached
emulator-5554 device
emulator-5555 device

$ adb -s emulator-5555 install helloWorld.apk

Note: If you issue a command without specifying a target device
when multiple devices are available, adb generates an error.

If you have multiple devices available, but only one is an emulator,
use the -e option to send commands to the emulator. Likewise, if there are multiple
devices but only one hardware device attached, use the -d option to send commands to
the hardware device.

Install an app

You can use adb to install an APK on an emulator or connected device
with the install command:

adb install path_to_apk

You must use the -t option with the install
command when you install a test APK. For more information,
see -t.

For more information about how to create an APK file that you can install on an emulator/device
instance, see Build and Run Your App.

Note that, if you are using Android Studio, you do not need to use adb directly to install
your app on the emulator/device. Instead, Android Studio handles the packaging and installation
of the app for you.

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Set up port forwarding

You can use the forward command to set up arbitrary port forwarding, which
forwards requests on a specific host port to a different port on a device.
The following example sets up forwarding of host port 6100 to device port 7100:

adb forward tcp:6100 tcp:7100

The following example sets up forwarding of host port 6100 to local:logd:

adb forward tcp:6100 local:logd

Copy files to/from a device

Use the pull and push commands to copy files to
and from an device. Unlike the install command,
which only copies an APK file to a specific location, the pull and push
commands let you copy arbitrary directories and files to any location in a device.

To copy a file or directory and its sub-directories the device,
do the following:

adb pull remote local

To copy a file or directory and its sub-directories to the device,
do the following:

adb push local remote

Replace local and remote with the paths to
the target files/directory on your development machine (local) and on the
device (remote). For example:

adb push foo.txt /sdcard/foo.txt

Stop the adb server

In some cases, you might need to terminate the adb server process and then restart it
to resolve the problem (e.g., if adb does not respond to a command).

To stop the adb server, use the adb kill-server command.
You can then restart the server by issuing any other adb command.

Issuing adb commands

You can issue adb commands from a command line on your development machine or from a script.
The usage is:

adb [-d | -e | -s serial_number] command

If there’s only one emulator running or only one device connected, the adb command is
sent to that device by default. If multiple emulators are running and/or multiple devices are
attached, you need to use the -d, -e, or -s
option to specify the target device to which the command should be directed.

You can see a detailed list of all supported adb commands using the following command:

adb --help

Issue shell commands

You can use the shell command to issue device commands through adb, or to start an
interactive shell.
To issue a single command use the shell command like this:

adb [-d |-e | -s serial_number] shell shell_command

To start an interactive shell on a device use the shell command like this:

adb [-d | -e | -s serial_number] shell

To exit an interactive shell, press Control + D or type exit.

Note:
With Android Platform-Tools 23 and higher, adb handles arguments the same way that the
ssh(1) command does.
This change has fixed a lot of problems with
command injection
and makes it
possible to now safely execute commands that contain shell
metacharacters, such as
adb install Let\'sGo.apk. But, this change means that the interpretation
of any command that contains shell metacharacters has also changed.
For example, the adb shell setprop foo 'a b' command is now an error because the
single quotes (') are swallowed by the local shell, and the device sees
adb shell setprop foo a b. To make the command work, quote twice,
once for the local shell and once for the remote shell, the same as you do with
ssh(1). For example, adb shell setprop foo "'a b'".

Android provides most of the usual Unix command-line tools. For a list of available tools, use
the following command:

adb shell ls /system/bin

Help is available for most of the commands via the --help argument.
Many of the shell commands are provided by
toybox.
General help applicable to all toybox commands is available via toybox --help.

See also Logcat Command-Line Tool which is useful
for monitoring the system log.

Call activity manager (am)

Within an adb shell, you can issue commands with the activity manager (am) tool to
perform various system actions, such as start an activity, force-stop a process,
broadcast an intent, modify the device screen properties, and more. While in a shell,
the syntax is:

am command

You can also issue an activity manager command directly from adb
without entering a remote shell. For example:

adb shell am start -a android.intent.action.VIEW

Table 2. Available activity manager commands

Command
Description

start [options] intent

Start an Activity specified by
intent.

See the
Specification for intent arguments.

Options are:

  • -D: Enable debugging.
  • -W: Wait for launch to complete.
  • --start-profiler file: Start profiler and send results to
    file.
  • -P file: Like --start-profiler,
    but profiling stops when the app goes idle.
  • -R count: Repeat the activity launch count
    times. Prior to each repeat,
    the top activity will be finished.
  • -S: Force stop the target app before starting the activity.
  • --opengl-trace: Enable tracing of OpenGL functions.
  • --user user_id | current: Specify which user to run as; if not
    specified, then run as the current user.


startservice [options] intent

Start the Service specified by
intent.

See the
Specification for intent arguments.

Options are:

  • --user user_id | current: Specify which user to run as; if not
    specified, then run as the current user.


force-stop package

Force stop everything associated with package (the app’s package name).


kill [options] package

Kill all processes associated with package
(the app’s package name). This command kills only
processes that are safe to kill and that will not impact the user
experience.

Options are:

  • --user user_id | all | current: Specify user whose processes to kill;
    all users if not specified.


kill-all

Kill all background processes.


broadcast [options] intent

Issue a broadcast intent.

See the
Specification for intent arguments.

Options are:

  • [--user user_id | all | current]: Specify which user to send to; if not
    specified then send to all users.


instrument [options] component

Start monitoring with an
Instrumentation instance.
Typically the target component
is the form test_package/runner_class.

Options are:

  • -r: Print raw results (otherwise decode
    report_key_streamresult). Use with
    [-e perf true] to generate raw output for performance measurements.

  • -e name value: Set argument name
    to value.
    For test runners a common form is
    -e testrunner_flag value[,value...]
    .

  • -p file: Write profiling data to file.
  • -w: Wait for instrumentation to finish before returning. Required for
    test runners.

  • --no-window-animation: Turn off window animations while running.
  • --user user_id | current: Specify which user instrumentation runs in;
    current user if not specified.


profile start process file

Start profiler on process, write results to file.


profile stop process

Stop profiler on process.


dumpheap [options] process file

Dump the heap of process, write to file.

Options are:

  • --user [user_id | current]: When supplying a process name,
    specify user of process to dump; uses current user if not specified.
  • -n: Dump native heap instead of managed heap.


set-debug-app [options] package

Set app package to debug.

Options are:

  • -w: Wait for debugger when app starts.
  • --persistent: Retain this value.


clear-debug-app

Clear the package previous set for debugging with set-debug-app.


monitor [options]

Start monitoring for crashes or ANRs.

Options are:

  • --gdb: Start gdbserv on the given port at crash/ANR.


screen-compat {on | off} package

Control screen
compatibility
mode of package.


display-size [reset | widthxheight]

Override device display size.
This command is helpful for testing your app across different screen sizes by mimicking a small
screen resolution using a device with a large screen, and vice versa.

Example:
am display-size 1280x800


display-density dpi

Override device display density.
This command is helpful for testing your app across different screen densities on high-density
screen environment using a low density screen, and vice versa.

Example:
am display-density 480


to-uri intent

Print the given intent specification as a URI.

See the
Specification for intent arguments.


to-intent-uri intent

Print the given intent specification as an intent: URI.

See the
Specification for intent arguments.

Specification for intent arguments

For activity manager commands that take an intent argument, you can
specify the intent with the following options:

Show all

-a action
Specify the intent action, such as android.intent.action.VIEW.
You can declare this only once.

-d data_uri
Specify the intent data URI, such as content://contacts/people/1.
You can declare this only once.

-t mime_type
Specify the intent MIME type, such as image/png.
You can declare this only once.

-c category
Specify an intent category, such as android.intent.category.APP_CONTACTS.

-n component
Specify the component name with package name prefix to create an explicit intent, such
as com.example.app/.ExampleActivity.

-f flags
Add flags to the intent, as supported by
setFlags().

--esn extra_key
Add a null extra. This option is not supported for URI intents.

-e | --es extra_key extra_string_value
Add string data as a key-value pair.

--ez extra_key extra_boolean_value
Add boolean data as a key-value pair.

--ei extra_key extra_int_value
Add integer data as a key-value pair.

--el extra_key extra_long_value
Add long data as a key-value pair.

--ef extra_key extra_float_value
Add float data as a key-value pair.

--eu extra_key extra_uri_value
Add URI data as a key-value pair.

--ecn extra_key extra_component_name_value
Add a component name, which is converted and passed as
a ComponentName object.

--eia extra_key extra_int_value[,extra_int_value...]
Add an array of integers.

--ela extra_key extra_long_value[,extra_long_value...]
Add an array of longs.

--efa extra_key extra_float_value[,extra_float_value...]
Add an array of floats.

--grant-read-uri-permission
Include the flag FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION.

--grant-write-uri-permission
Include the flag FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION.

--debug-log-resolution
Include the flag FLAG_DEBUG_LOG_RESOLUTION.

--exclude-stopped-packages
Include the flag FLAG_EXCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGES.

--include-stopped-packages
Include the flag FLAG_INCLUDE_STOPPED_PACKAGES.

--activity-brought-to-front
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_BROUGHT_TO_FRONT.

--activity-clear-top
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP.

--activity-clear-when-task-reset
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_WHEN_TASK_RESET.

--activity-exclude-from-recents
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_EXCLUDE_FROM_RECENTS.

--activity-launched-from-history
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_LAUNCHED_FROM_HISTORY.

--activity-multiple-task
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_MULTIPLE_TASK.

--activity-no-animation
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_NO_ANIMATION.

--activity-no-history
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_NO_HISTORY.

--activity-no-user-action
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_NO_USER_ACTION.

--activity-previous-is-top
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_PREVIOUS_IS_TOP.

--activity-reorder-to-front
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_REORDER_TO_FRONT.

--activity-reset-task-if-needed
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_RESET_TASK_IF_NEEDED.

--activity-single-top
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_SINGLE_TOP.

--activity-clear-task
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TASK.

--activity-task-on-home
Include the flag FLAG_ACTIVITY_TASK_ON_HOME.

--receiver-registered-only
Include the flag FLAG_RECEIVER_REGISTERED_ONLY.

--receiver-replace-pending
Include the flag FLAG_RECEIVER_REPLACE_PENDING.

--selector
Requires the use of -d and -t options to set the intent data and type.

URI component package
You can directly specify a URI, package name, and component name when not qualified
by one of the above options. When an argument is unqualified, the tool assumes the argument
is a URI if it contains a “:” (colon); it assumes the argument is a component name if it
contains a “/” (forward-slash); otherwise it assumes the argument is a package name.

Call package manager (pm)

Within an adb shell, you can issue commands with the package manager (pm) tool to
perform actions and queries on app packages installed on the device. While in a shell,
the syntax is:

pm command

You can also issue a package manager command directly from adb
without entering a remote shell. For example:

adb shell pm uninstall com.example.MyApp

Table 3. Available package manager commands.

Command
Description


list packages [options] filter

Prints all packages, optionally only
those whose package name contains the text in filter.

Options:

  • -f: See their associated file.
  • -d: Filter to only show disabled packages.
  • -e: Filter to only show enabled packages.
  • -s: Filter to only show system packages.
  • -3: Filter to only show third party packages.
  • -i: See the installer for the packages.
  • -u: Also include uninstalled packages.
  • --user user_id: The user space to query.


list permission-groups

Prints all known permission groups.


list permissions [options] group

Prints all known permissions, optionally only
those in group.

Options:

  • -g: Organize by group.
  • -f: Print all information.
  • -s: Short summary.
  • -d: Only list dangerous permissions.
  • -u: List only the permissions users will see.


list instrumentation [options]

List all test packages.

Options:

  • -f: List the APK file for the test package.
  • target_package: List test packages for only this app.


list features

Prints all features of the system.


list libraries

Prints all the libraries supported by the current device.


list users

Prints all users on the system.


path package

Print the path to the APK of the given package.


install [options] path

Installs a package (specified by path) to the system.

Options:

  • -r: Reinstall an existing app, keeping its data.
  • -t: Allow test APKs to be installed. Gradle generates a test APK when
    you have only run or debugged your app or have used the Android Studio Build > Build
    APK
    command. If the APK is built using a developer preview SDK
    (if the targetSdkVersion is
    a letter instead of a number), you must include the
    -t option
    with the install command if you are installing a test APK.
  • -i installer_package_name: Specify the installer package name.
  • --install-location location: Sets the install location
    using one of the following values:

    • : Use the default install location
    • 1: Install on internal device storage
    • 2: Install on external media
  • -f: Install package on the internal system memory.
  • -d: Allow version code downgrade.
  • -g: Grant all permissions listed in the app manifest.
  • --fastdeploy: Quickly update an installed package by only updating the parts of
    the APK that changed.
  • --incremental: Installs enough of the APK to launch the app
    while streaming the remaining data in the background. To use this feature, you must sign the
    APK, create an
    APK Signature Scheme v4 file,
    and place this file in the same directory as the APK. This feature is only supported on
    certain devices. This option forces adb to use the feature or fail if it is not supported
    (with verbose information on why it failed). Append the --wait option to wait
    until the APK is fully installed before granting access to the APK.

    --no-incremental prevents adb from using this feature.


uninstall [options] package

Removes a package from the system.

Options:

  • -k: Keep the data and cache directories around after package removal.


clear package

Deletes all data associated with a package.


enable package_or_component

Enable the given package or component (written as “package/class”).


disable package_or_component

Disable the given package or component (written as “package/class”).

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disable-user [options] package_or_component

Options:

  • --user user_id: The user to disable.


grant package_name permission

Grant a permission to an app. On devices running Android 6.0 (API level 23)
and higher, the permission can be any permission declared in the app manifest. On devices
running Android 5.1 (API level 22) and lower, must be an optional permission defined by the
app.


revoke package_name permission

Revoke a permission from an app. On devices running Android 6.0 (API level
23) and higher, the permission can be any permission declared in the app manifest. On devices
running Android 5.1 (API level 22) and lower, must be an optional permission defined by the
app.


set-install-location location

Changes the default install location. Location values:

  • : Auto: Let system decide the best location.
  • 1: Internal: install on internal device storage.
  • 2: External: on external media.

Note: This is only intended for debugging; using this can cause
apps to break and other undesireable behavior.


get-install-location

Returns the current install location. Return values:

  • 0 [auto]: Lets system decide the best location
  • 1 [internal]: Installs on internal device storage
  • 2 [external]: Installs on external media


set-permission-enforced permission [true | false]

Specifies whether the given permission should be enforced.


trim-caches desired_free_space

Trim cache files to reach the given free space.


create-user user_name

Create a new user with the given user_name,
printing the new user identifier of the user.


remove-user user_id

Remove the user with the given user_id,
deleting all data associated with that user


get-max-users

Prints the maximum number of users supported by the device.

Call device policy manager (dpm)

To help you develop and test your device management (or other enterprise) apps, you can issue
commands to the device policy manager (dpm) tool. Use the tool to control the active
admin app or change a policy’s status data on the device.
While in a shell, the syntax is:

dpm command

You can also issue a device policy manager command directly from adb
without entering a remote shell:

adb shell dpm command

Table 4. Available device policy manager commands

Command
Description

set-active-admin [options] component

Sets component as active admin.

Options are:

  • --user user_id: Specify the target user. You can also pass
    --user current to select the current user.

set-profile-owner [options] component

Sets component as active admin and its package as profile owner for an existing user.

Options are:

  • --user user_id: Specify the target user. You can
    also pass --user current to select the current user.
  • --name name: Specify the human-readable organization name.

set-device-owner [options] component

Sets component as active admin and its package as device owner.

Options are:

  • --user user_id: Specify the target user. You can also pass
    --user current to select the current user.
  • --name name: Specify the human-readable organization name.

remove-active-admin [options] component

Disables an active admin. The app must declare
android:testOnly
in the manifest. This command also removes device and profile owners.

Options are:

  • --user user_id: Specify the target user. You can also pass
    --user current to select the current user.

clear-freeze-period-record

Clears the device’s record of previously-set freeze periods for system OTA updates. This is useful
to avoid the device’s scheduling restrictions when developing apps that manage freeze-periods. See
Manage system updates.

Supported on devices running Android 9.0 (API level 28) and higher.

force-network-logs

Forces the system to make any existing network logs ready for retrieval by a DPC. If there are
connection or DNS logs available, the DPC receives the
onNetworkLogsAvailable()
callback. See Network activity logging.

This command is rate-limited. Supported on devices running Android 9.0 (API level 28) and higher.

force-security-logs

Forces the system to make any existing security logs available to the DPC. If there are logs
available, the DPC receives the
onSecurityLogsAvailable()
callback. See Log enterprise device
activity
.

This command is rate-limited. Supported on devices running Android 9.0 (API level 28) and higher.

Take a screenshot

The screencap command is a shell utility for taking a screenshot of a device display.
While in a shell, the syntax is:

screencap filename

To use the screencap from the command line, type the following:

adb shell screencap /sdcard/screen.png

Here’s an example screenshot session, using the adb shell to capture the screenshot and the
pull command to download the file from the device:

$ adb shell
shell@ $ screencap /sdcard/screen.png
shell@ $ exit
$ adb pull /sdcard/screen.png

Record a video

The screenrecord command is a shell utility for recording the display of devices
running Android 4.4 (API level 19) and higher. The utility records screen activity to an MPEG-4
file. You can use this file to create promotional or training videos or for debugging and testing.

In a shell, use the following syntax:

screenrecord [options] filename

To use screenrecord from the command line, type the following:

adb shell screenrecord /sdcard/demo.mp4

Stop the screen recording by pressing Control + C (Command + C on Mac); otherwise, the recording
stops automatically at three minutes or the time limit set by --time-limit.

To begin recording your device screen, run the screenrecord command to record
the video. Then, run the pull command to download the video from the device to the host
computer. Here’s an example recording session:

$ adb shell
shell@ $ screenrecord --verbose /sdcard/demo.mp4
(press Control + C to stop)
shell@ $ exit
$ adb pull /sdcard/demo.mp4

The screenrecord utility can record at any supported resolution and bit rate you
request, while retaining the aspect ratio of the device display. The utility records at the native
display resolution and orientation by default, with a maximum length of three minutes.

Limitations of the screenrecord utility:

  • Audio is not recorded with the video file.
  • Video recording is not available for devices running Wear OS.
  • Some devices might not be able to record at their native display resolution.
    If you encounter problems with screen recording, try using a lower screen resolution.
  • Rotation of the screen during recording is not supported. If the screen does rotate during
    recording, some of the screen is cut off in the recording.

Table 5. screenrecord options

Options
Description

--help

Displays command syntax and options

--size widthxheight

Sets the video size: 1280x720. The default value is the device’s native
display resolution (if supported), 1280×720 if not. For best results, use a size supported
by your device’s Advanced Video Coding (AVC) encoder.

--bit-rate rate
Sets the video bit rate for the video, in megabits per second. The default value is 4Mbps.
You can increase the bit rate to improve video quality, but doing so results in larger movie
files. The following example sets the recording bit rate to 6Mbps:

screenrecord --bit-rate 6000000 /sdcard/demo.mp4

--time-limit time
Sets the maximum recording time, in seconds. The default and maximum value is 180
(3 minutes).

--rotate
Rotates the output 90 degrees. This feature is experimental.

--verbose
Displays log information on the command-line screen. If you do not set this option,
the utility does not display any information while running.

Read ART profiles for apps

Starting in Android 7.0 (API level 24) the Android Runtime (ART) collects execution profiles for
installed apps, which are used to optimize app performance. You might want
to examine the collected profiles to understand which methods are determined to be frequently
executed and which classes are used during app startup.

To produce a text form of the profile information, use the command:

adb shell cmd package dump-profiles package

To retrieve the file produced, use:

adb pull /data/misc/profman/package.txt

Reset test devices

If you test your app across multiple test devices, it may be useful to reset your device between
tests, for example, to remove user data and reset the test environment. You can perform a factory
reset of a test device running Android 10 (API level 29) or higher using the
testharness adb shell command, as shown below.

adb shell cmd testharness enable

When restoring the device using testharness, the device automatically backs up the RSA
key that allows debugging through the current workstation in a persistent location. That is, after
the device is reset, the workstation can continue to debug and issue adb commands to the device
without manually registering a new key.

Additionally, to help make it easier and more secure to keep testing your app, using the
testharness to restore a device also changes the following device settings:

  • The device sets up certain system settings so that initial device setup wizards do not appear. That is, the device enters a state from which you can quickly install, debug, and test your app.
  • Settings:
    • Disables lock screen
    • Disables emergency alerts
    • Disables auto-sync for accounts
    • Disables automatic system updates
  • Other:
    • Disables preinstalled security apps

If you app needs to detect and adapt to the default settings of the testharness
command, you can use the

ActivityManager.isRunningInUserTestHarness()
.

sqlite

sqlite3 starts the sqlite command-line program for examining sqlite databases.
It includes commands such as .dump to print the contents of a table, and
.schema to print the SQL CREATE statement for an existing table.
You can also execute SQLite commands from the command line, as shown below.

$ adb -s emulator-5554 shell
$ sqlite3 /data/data/com.example.app/databases/rssitems.db
SQLite version 3.3.12
Enter ".help" for instructions

For more information, see the sqlite3 command line documentation.

[NEW] Full Wave Rectifier-Bridge Rectifier-Circuit Diagram with Design & Theory | minimal bride project – Sambeauty

A Full wave rectifier is a circuit arrangement which makes use of both half cycles of input alternating current (AC) and converts them to direct current (DC). In our tutorial on Half wave rectifiers, we have seen that a half wave rectifier makes use of only one-half cycle of the input alternating current. Thus a full wave rectifier is much more efficient (double+) than a half wave rectifier. This process of converting both half cycles of the input supply (alternating current) to direct current (DC) is termed full wave rectification.

Full wave rectifier can be constructed in 2 ways. The first method makes use of a centre tapped transformer and 2 diodes. This arrangement is known as Center Tapped Full Wave Rectifier.

The second method uses a normal transformer with 4 diodes arranged as a bridge. This arrangement is known as a Bridge Rectifier.

Full Wave Rectifier Theory

To understand full wave bridge rectifier theory perfectly, you need to learn half wave rectifier first. In the tutorial of half wave rectifier, we have clearly explained the basic working of a rectifier. In addition, we have also explained the theory behind a pn junction and the characteristics of a pn junction diode.

Full Wave Rectifier – Working & Operation

The working & operation of a full wave bridge rectifier is pretty simple.  The circuit diagrams and waveforms we have given below will help you understand the operation of a bridge rectifier perfectly.  In the circuit diagram, 4 diodes are arranged in the form of a bridge. The transformer secondary is connected to two diametrically opposite points of the bridge at points A & C.  The load resistance RL  is connected to bridge through points B and D.

During the first half cycle

During the first half cycle of the input voltage, the upper end of the transformer secondary winding is positive with respect to the lower end. Thus during the first half cycle diodes D1 and D3 are forward biased and current flows through arm AB, enters the load resistance RL, and returns back flowing through arm DC. During this half of each input cycle, the diodes D2 and D4 are reverse biased and current is not allowed to flow in arms AD and BC. The flow of current is indicated by solid arrows in the figure above. We have developed another diagram below to help you understand the current flow quickly. See the diagram below – the green arrows indicate the beginning of current flow from the source (transformer secondary) to the load resistance. The red arrows indicate the return path of current from load resistance to the source, thus completing the circuit.   

During the second half cycle

During the second half cycle of the input voltage, the lower end of the transformer secondary winding is positive with respect to the upper end. Thus diodes D2 and D4 become forward biased and current flows through arm CB, enters the load resistance RL,  and returns back to the source flowing through arm DA. The flow of current has been shown by dotted arrows in the figure. Thus the direction of flow of current through the load resistance RL remains the same during both half cycles of the input supply voltage.  See the diagram below – the green arrows indicate the beginning of current flow from the source (transformer secondary) to the load resistance. The red arrows indicate the return path of current from load resistance to the source, thus completing the circuit.

Peak Inverse Voltage of a Full wave bridge rectifier:

Let’s analyse peak inverse voltage (PIV) of a full wave bridge rectifier using the circuit diagram. At any instant when the transformer secondary voltage attains positive peak value Vmax, diodes D1 and D3 will be forward biased (conducting) and the diodes D2 and D4 will be reverse biased (non conducting). If we consider ideal diodes in bridge, the forward biased diodes D1 and D3 will have zero resistance. This means voltage drop across the conducting diodes will be zero. This will result in the entire transformer secondary voltage being developed across load resistance RL.

Thus PIV of a bridge rectifier = Vmax (max of secondary voltage)

Bridge Rectifier Circuit Analysis

The only difference in the analysis between full wave and centre tap rectifier is that

  1. In a bridge rectifier circuit, two diodes conduct during each half cycle and the forward resistance becomes double (2RF).
  2. In a bridge rectifier circuit, Vsmax is the maximum voltage across the transformer secondary winding whereas in a centre tap rectifier Vsmax represents that maximum voltage across each half of the secondary winding.

The different parameters are explained with equations below:

  1. Peak Current

The instantaneous value of the voltage applied to the rectifier is given as

vs =  Vsmax Sin wt

 If the diode is assumed to have a forward resistance of RF ohms and a reverse resistance equal to infinity, the current flowing through the load resistance is given as

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i1 = Imax Sin wt and i2 = 0 for the first half cycle

and i1 = 0 and i2 = Imax Sin wt for second half cycle

The total current flowing through the load resistance RL, being the sum of currents i1 and i2 is given as

i = i1 + i2 = Imax Sin wt for the whole cycle.

Where the peak value of the current flowing through the load resistance RL is given as

Imax = Vsmax/(2RF + RL)

2.    Output Current

Since the current is the same through the load resistance RL in the two halves of the ac cycle, magnitude od dc current Idc, which is equal to the average value of ac current, can be obtained by integrating the current i1 between 0 and pi or current i2 between pi and 2pi.

3.    DC Output Voltage

Average or dc value of voltage across the load is given as

4.    Root Mean Square (RMS) Value of Current

RMS or effective value of current flowing through the load resistance RL  is given as

5.    Root Mean Square (RMS) Value of Output Voltage

RMS value of voltage across the load is given as

6.    Rectification Efficiency

Power delivered to load,

7.    Ripple Factor

Form factor of the rectified output voltage of a full wave rectifier is given as

So, ripple factor, γ =  1.112 – 1) = 0.482

8.    Regulation

The dc output voltage is given as

Merits and Demerits of Full-wave Rectifier Over Half-Wave Rectifier 

Merits – let us talk about the advantages of full wave bridge rectifier over half wave version first. I can think about 4 specific merits at this point.

  • Efficiency is double for a full wave bridge rectifier. The reason is that, a half wave rectifier makes use of only one half of the input signal. A bridge rectifier makes use of both halves and hence double efficiency
  • The residual ac ripples (before filtering) is very low in the output of a bridge rectifier. The same ripple percentage is very high in half wave rectifier. A simple filter is enough to get a constant dc voltage from the bridge rectifier.
  • We know the efficiency of FW bridge is double than HW rectifier. This means higher output voltage, Higher transformer utilization factor (TUF) and higher output power.

Demerits –  Full-wave rectifier needs more circuit elements and is costlier.

Merits and Demerits of Bridge Rectifier Over Center-Tap Rectifier.

A centre tap rectifier is always a difficult one to implement because of the special transformer involved. A centre tapped transformer is costly as well. One key difference between center tap & bridge rectifier is in the number of diodes involved in construction. A center tap full wave rectifier needs only 2 diodes whereas a bridge rectifier needs 4 diodes. But silicon diodes being cheaper than a center tap transformer, a bridge rectifier is much-preferred solution in a DC power supply.  Following are the advantages of bridge rectifier over a center tap rectifier.

  • A bridge rectifier can be constructed with or without a transformer. If a transformer is involved, any ordinary step down/step up transformer will do the job. This luxury is not available in a center tap rectifier. Here the design of rectifier is dependent on the center tap transformer, which can not be replaced.
  • Bridge rectifier is suited for high voltage applications. The reason is the high peak inverse voltage (PIV) of bridge rectifier when compared to the PIV of a center tap rectifier.
  • Transformer utilization factor (TUF) is higher for bridge rectifier.
Demerits of Bridge rectifier over center tap rectifier 

The significant disadvantage of a bridge rectifier over center tap is the involvement of 4 diodes in the construction of bridge rectifier. In a bridge rectifier, 2 diodes conduct simultaneously on a half cycle of input. A center tap rectifier has only 1 diode conducting on one-half cycle. This increases the net voltage drop across diodes in a bridge rectifier (it is double to the value of center tap).

Applications of Full wave Bridge rectifier

Full wave rectifier finds uses in the construction of constant dc voltage power supplies, especially in general power supplies.  A bridge rectifier with an efficient filter is ideal for any type of general power supply applications like charging a battery, powering a dc device (like a motor, led etc) etc. However, for an audio application, a general power supply may not be enough. This is because of the residual ripple factor in a bridge rectifier. There are limitations to filtering ripples. For audio applications, specially built power supplies (using IC regulators) may be ideal.

Full Wave Bridge Rectifier with Capacitor Filter

The output voltage of the full wave rectifier is not constant, it is always pulsating. But this cannot be used in real life applications. In other words, we desire a DC power supply with a constant output voltage. In order to achieve a smooth and constant voltage a filter with a capacitor or an inductor is used. The circuit diagram below shows a half wave rectifier with capacitor filter.

Full wave rectifier with capacitor filter

Ripple factor in a bridge rectifier

Ripple factor is a ratio of the residual ac component to dc component in the output voltage. Ripple factor in a bridge rectifier is half than that of a half wave rectifier.

References 

Principles of Electronics

1. To explain the concepts better, we have referred several textbooks, especially

article.

2. To create the easy to understand images, we have referred to this


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Album Lương Bích Hữu Những Ca Khúc Nhạc Trẻ Buồn Hay Nhất | Em Yêu Anh – Dằm Trong Tim


Lương Bích Hữu (sinh năm 1984) là một nữ ca sĩ người Việt gốc Hoa được biết đến nhiều qua các ca khúc dành cho giới trẻ. Cô còn được giới truyền thông cũng như khán giả hâm mộ đặt cho biệt danh \”Cô gái Trung Hoa\” đây cũng là tên một bài hát của cô.

Lương Bích Hữu sinh ngày 1 tháng 9 năm 1984, còn có biệt danh là A Mí, được người hâm mộ gọi thân mật là chị Bảy là con thứ 4 trong một gia đình có 5 chị em gái, tại quận 8, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh.
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Năm 2003, Lương Bích Hữu tham gia cuộc thi Tiếng hát Truyền hình và lọt vào tới vòng bán kết. Cũng từ đây, cô được nhạc sĩ Nguyễn Hà chú ý và mời về công ty Nguyễn Production do anh làm giám đốc. Nhưng sang năm 2004, Bích Hữu lại quyết định đầu quân về công ty Thế giới Giải trí do nhạc sĩ Quang Huy làm giám đốc. Công ty này cũng sắp xếp cho cô tham gia nhóm nhạc dưới tên H.A.T với ba thành viên: Lương Bích Hữu, Phạm Quỳnh Anh, Thu Thủy (sau này là Ngô Quỳnh Anh). Từ khi thành lập, nhóm đã có được rất nhiều thành công và sở hữu kha khá các bài hit được các bạn trẻ khắp nơi yêu thích.

Sau đó một thời gian, H.A.T tan rã, Lương Bích Hữu quyết định quay về công ty Nguyễn Production và chính thức phát hành album đầu tay mang tên Cô gái Trung Hoa. Bốn bài trong tổng số 6 bài hát của Lương Bích Hữu trong album trên vào top của các trang web nghe nhạc trực tuyến sau 2 tuần.
Ngày 28/7/2006, Lương Bích Hữu có liveshow cùng tên \”Cô gái Trung Hoa\”.

Ngày 3/1/2007, Lương Bích Hữu phát hành album Vol.2 Âyda Âyda.
Thời gian sau, Lương Bích Hữu lại được công ty quản lý của mình sắp xếp cho tham gia một nhóm nhạc nữ khác dưới tên Ngũ Long Công Chúa với năm thành viên: Lương Bích Hữu, Yến Trang, Yến Nhi, Minh Trang, Bích Trâm. Tuy nhiên, nhóm nhạc này hoạt động được một khoảng thời gian khá ngắn rồi cũng tan rã.
Từ sự cố rã nhóm Ngũ Long Công Chúa, Bích Hữu cũng hết hạn hợp đồng với Nguyễn Production, cô đã từ chối đề nghị gia hạn hợp đồng và trở thành một ca sĩ tự do.
Lương Bích Hữu được biết đến là ca sĩ có phong cách nữ tính tuy nhiên đôi khi cô cũng trở nên nổi loạn với những kiểu tóc, màu tóc cá tính và bị cho là thảm họa thời trang. Hiện tại, \”Cô gái Trung Hoa\” vẫn theo đuổi phong cách dịu dàng, đằm thắm.

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Located within the Tasman Peninsula, Koonya Pavilion is a tiny home designed for a writer to complete his novel. The architecture and interior design of the tiny house, crafted by Room11, celebrates the art of small living and manifests a perfect rendering of human experiences within the Tasmanian environment.
The tiny home has a deep understanding of its relationship with the landscape and its microclimate. The interior design celebrates connecting to land and speaks to a muted palette. As a tiny home designed for a writer to complete his novel, it was important for the residence to have a poetic drive and strive to be a vessel for light. The structure of the cabin is pared back in materiality, finding purpose rather in a pure intention, its individual focus and connection to place.
As a tiny home designed for a writer to complete his novel, glass is the main material used within the form, ensuring there are no distractions from the landscape beyond. The tiny home in Tasmania is a vessel for light – if the day is beautiful then the small house is beautiful and, by the same token, if the day is moody then the interior is moody. The glass allows for the weather to be filtered throughout the tiny home, keeping the wind out but the warmth of the sun in, felt particularly due to the structure’s emphasis on small living. As a tiny home designed for a writer to complete his novel, Koonya Pavilion utilises moments of pause to centre the small house. Using large glass panels also allows the colours of the environment to speak to the internal dialogue and minimalist interior – this aspect of the small house is another considered way the form is connecting to land beyond its physical boundaries.
The fireplace in the small house is also a significant insertion within the cabin. A key feature of the architecture, the fireplace is a romantic element that grounds the space and further reinforces the theme of small living and human experiences.
The materials used within the tiny home are centred around concrete – which aids in the thermal performance of the cabin – as well as timber and glass. Minimal materials are used, crafting a neutral palette within the tiny house that allows for the surrounding environment to merge with the internal features – this is felt due to the nuanced ways of small living.
Nestled within Tasmania, Koonya Pavilion is a tiny home designed for a writer to complete his novel. The building allows for a smooth transition from inside and out, day to night. This connection between the interior and exterior elements is only possible due to the weight placed upon the essence of crafting a unique and functional tiny house.
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Architecture and Interior Design by Room11 Architects.
Photography by Adam Gibson.
Styling by LUC Design.
Build by Elevate Building Tasmania.
Filmed and Edited by Cheer Squad Film Co.
Production by The Local Project.
Musicbed SyncID: MB01VU7JOPRYZJS
TinyHome Architecture SmallLiving Cabin InteriorDesign HumanExperiences ConnectingToLand SmallHouse Tasmania Koonya Architect DreamHouse WritersCabin

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